Tendance Coatesy

Left Socialist Blog

The Labour Party, Trotskyism and Pabloism.

with 16 comments

They Lost….

“Trotskyism is being studied as never before” The Brent Soviet.

“But we want to speak frankly to you, comrade Trotsky, about the sectarian methods which we have observed around us and which have contributed to the setbacks and enfeebling of the vanguard. I refer to those methods which consist in violating and brutalising the revolutionary intelligence of those militants – numerous in France – who are accustomed to making up their own minds and who put themselves loyally to the school of hard facts. These are the methods which consist in interpreting with no indulgence whatever the inevitable fumblings in the search for revolutionary truth. Finally, these are the methods which attempt, by a colonisation directed from without, to dictate to the labour movement attitudes, tactics or responses which do not come from the depths of its collective intelligence. It is in large part because of this that the French section of the Fourth International has shown itself absolutely incapable not merely of reaching the masses but indeed even of forming tried and serious cadres.”

Marceau Pivert to Trotsky. 1939 (Where is the PSOP Going?  A correspondence between Marceau Pivert, Daniel Guerin and Leon Trotsky)

 

With Trotskyists about to take over the Labour Party there is interest in the ideology and politics of this current on the left.

One figure we have yet to hear mention is Michael Pablo one, of many but by far the best known, party names of a revolutionary usually called Michel Raptis. The most reviled Trotskyist of the post-war period, he has been accused of being the father of lies, liquidationism, and revisionism of all stripes and spots.  In fact his ideas and career are important to anybody concerned with Trotskyism: an illustration of its worst faults and some of its better features.

It will come as no surprise that Tendance Coatesy, as with many other leftists, owes a political and ideological debt to this outstanding individual. That his principal orthodox Trotskyist enemies were Gerry Healy, Pierre Lambert and James Cannon – all po-faced right-wing authoritarians – one cannot but help but like Pablo.

This should be borne in mind even if we accept that the fundamental premises with which he, and all Trotskyists, worked, that the Soviet Union, the Eastern Bloc, and China, not to mention countries like Cuba, had, by revolution or by bureaucratic imposition, become ‘non-capitalist’ social formations, part of a fundamentally new stage in history has been proved false. And that it’s hard to avoid acknowledging the erosion of the related belief, that ‘building revolutionary parties’ on the models laid down by Lenin and Trotsky was a realistic strategy to help create socialist societies in the capitalist world,  and overthrow the Stalinist bureaucratic ‘deformations’ in these non-capitalist countries.

Pabloism. 

The term Pabloism was first used during the splintering of Trotskyism in the 1950s. It referred to a set of positions advanced by Michael Rapitis during debates within the Fourth International, principality Pablo’s view that the “objective” growth of Stalinist-led ‘workers’ states’ ‘degenerated’ and deformed) meant that they had to have a strategy towards the mass Communist parties that could capture their base. He was accused of ‘liquidating’ the Trotskyist ‘programme’ as an independent point of reference outside of these parties.

Since many of his opponents had their own strategic alliances inside social democratic parties that disguised their true ‘programme’ (Gerry Healy’s pre-Socialist Labour League group in Labour ‘The Club‘, the original home of most UK ‘Trotksyist’ organisations and groupuscules) , not to mention  collaboration with right-wing anti-Communist elements backed by American funds (in France, in the union federation Force Ouvrière) this accusation looks  bad faith. More serious criticisms stem from the claim that Stalinist forms of Communism were a kind of ‘leap’ into a better form of society which Trotskyists should back (from the outside) and influence (from the inside).

The noise and fury (cited above) around such disagreements can only be understood by referring to earlier disputes which set the pattern for Trotskyist polemics that has endured to this day.

This process of raucous fractures and splits which can be traced back to the 1930s, notably in France. Despite the widespread impression that American Trotskyism, above all the US Socialist Workers’ party, was the lodestar of the movement, French Trotskyism was the centre of the Fourth International and many of the original parties – a country with (in the 1912 foundation, larger than the Socialist SFIO), and form 1936 ownwards a significant political player) a large Communist party to boot, and a deep-rooted socialist and communist tradition that sets it off from America. Before looking at what ‘Pabloism’ is we have to begin there.

One of the first Trotskyist groups in that country was the  la Ligue communiste founded in 1930. By the latter half of the decade there were already three main Trotskyist tendencies in the Hexagone (French Trotskyism) .

They were all organised around strong personalities: long embedded leadership is an enduring feature of Trotskyism (French Trotskyism)

Zeller’s Témoin du siècle (2000) outlines some of their disagreements. Perhaps it is most revealing on how the Trotskyists behaved after the ‘french turn’ which saw them joining the French Socialists, the SFIO.

Zeller describes their activists lecturing people on the First Congresses of the Third International and Trotsky’s line on the Chinese Revolution. Not surprisingly not everybody was impressed with these no doubt kindly meant lectures. They were kicked out of the party of Léon  Blum after, amongst other things,  a sustained campaign to build workers’ militias. For Trotsky the “La révolution française a commencé” with the wave of strikes that accompanied the election in 1936 of the Front Populaire you understand (Trotsky, Ou Va La France 1934 – 8, particularly the section on the ” milice ouvrière ” in  Socialisme et lutte armée.)

In his Mémoire d’un dinosaure trotskiste (1999) Yvan Craipeau describes the various positions Trotsky took on French politics,, from ‘entryism’ in the SFIO as the bolchevik-léniniste tendency, to efforts to influence Marceau Pivert’s “Gauche révolutionnaire” both while it remained in the Socialist party, and later (see above) when it was the independent Parti socialiste ouvrier et paysan (PSOP). founded in 1938. Pivert memorably replied to Trotsky about their  efforts at hectoring instruction, that his party members “are accustomed to making up their own minds ” and that they “put themselves loyally to the school of hard facts” – not Trotsky’s international prognostics. 

Trotsky replied by, behind his back,  describing Pivert (as described by Zeller) as a false revolutionary in the mould of  a provincial school teacher.

The entire history is of  bitterness and great  complexity (one I am familiar with in case anybody wants a Trainspotter lesson…).  People wishing the investigate further should begin with these two books and look at this Wikipedia entries: Trotskisme en France. French Trotskyists.

But all this ill-will was a mere foreshadowing of the later splits in the Trotskyist movement.

Entryism.

To jump from those years: the key issues in the 1954 split included entryism (which Pablo advocated inside the mass Communist parties and well as social democracy) and this,

Pablo’s elevation of the “objective process” to “the sole determining factor” reducing the subjective factor (the consciousness and organization of the vanguard party) to irrelevance, the discussion of “several centuries” of “transition” (later characterized by Pablo’s opponents as “centuries of deformed workers states”) and the suggestion that revolutionary leadership might be provided by the Stalinist parties rather than the Fourth International—the whole analytic structure of Pabloist revisionism emerged. The Genesis of Pabloism.

Pablo indeed took seriously the prospect of a Third World war. In these conditions he  backed, and enforce, this entryist strategy known as ” entrism sui generis ” inside (where possible) Stalinist Communist parties, and just about everything  that moved on the social democratic left. This meant not just concealing  membership of the Trotskyist movement,  even to the point of point-bank denial of any link. Famously as the text above states he considered that it might take decades of such underground work for their efforts to bear fruit.

Apart from its inherent implausibility the prospect of ‘centuries’ of clandestine burrowing away seemed to  consign the Trotskyists to the fate of the Marranos, ‘converted’ Jews who ostensibly  submitted to Catholicism but practised their faith in secret.

The strategy had little impact in the Communist parties – in contrast to long-term and independently initiated entryism in the British Labour Party by Trotskyists (the secretive and bureaucratic ‘Militant’ group) who were distant from his Fourth International.

After winning support for these policies, and even a degree of power over the International, helped by the departure of Healey, Lambert and Canon (cited above) Rapitis by the end of the same decade  plunged into a new cause: anti-colonialism and the ‘Arab Revolution’. He lost control of the Fourth International to Ernest Mandel and Pierre Frank. He retired from it in the mid-sixties.

Romance about epochs of hidden revolutionary labour aside, the  idea of working within the French Parti communiste français (PCF) was, even at the time,  in view of the party’s  top-down structure  and intolerant culture, ill-thought out and profoundly misjudged. It was equally parasitic on the success of the party being ‘entered’ (as indeed the experience of the Labour Party indicates).

Nevertheless French Trotskyism emerged more openly on the 60s political scene when a group of young Communist students, led by Alain Krivine, founded the independent Jeunesse communiste révolutionnaire in 1966. (1) Pablo did however put heart and soul in supporting the anti-colonial struggle in Algeria (a fight in which Krivine was also engaged) and was imprisoned for gun running to the independence fighters. He had a  brief period of influence in  the post-independence (5th of July 1962) Front de Libération Nationale, (FLN) notably on the leader Ben Bella (1916 – 2012) promoting the ideas of self-management. The Houari Boumédiènne,  1965 military coup put paid to that. (2)

The later politics of Pablo’s the  Tendance marxiste-révolutionnaire internationale (TMRI), and its French affiliate, the Alliance marxiste révolutionnaire (AMR) centred around the primacy of self-management.  They embraced the project of a ‘self-managed’ republic, took up themes such as feminism (in the mid-sixties), supported anti-colonial revolutions (without neglecting as their consequences unravelled, the necessary critique of ‘anti-imperialist’ national bourgeoisies), and defended democratic politics against Stalinism and orthodox Trotskyism. Pablo’s writings translated into English include a collection of his articles (Michel Raptis, Socialism, Democracy & Self-Management: Political Essays 1980 and his first-hand studies of workers’ control during the Allende government in Chile (Revolution and Counter Revolution in Chile by Michael Raptis. 1975) – another experience cut short by a bloody military coup.

New Left.

In the 1970s its members joined the Parti Socialiste Unifié, a French New Left party with over 30,000 members,  hundreds of councillors  during the late 60s and early 1970s and 4 MPs in 1967. Later the AMR was involved in other left alliances, all within the  traditions of workers’ self-management and New Left causes, participative democracy feminism, gay rights, green issues.  By the 1980s the TNR,  operated on a collegiate rather than a ‘Leader’ basis (and numbered outstanding figures such as Maurice Najman). It helped keep alive the ideas of workers’ control during the political triumph of neoliberalism. I was close to them in the 1980s (and attended one of their World Congress, the 8th) as a member of the Fédération pour une gauche alternative where we worked with the PSU in its final years.

https://pbs.twimg.com/media/CqjSS9FXEAAJxOm.jpg

Movements, that place ecological issues within the context of popular control, talk of new forms of democracy, owe something to those in the PSU and other New Left groups of the sixties and seventies across Europe. The TMRI was part of these currents, less and less concerned with building a revolutionary ‘party’ than with the interests of the movements themselves. (3) It could be said to have been a practical answer to the critique of Trotskyism offered by Claude Lefort of the group, Socialisme ou Barbarie in the 1950s.  Lefort once asked, why, without the kind of material basis of a Stalinist state or even a trade union administration, did all Trotskyist groups reproduce the bureaucratic forms of these apparatuses?One response is, yes, “liquidationism”, being part of the wider movement and not a self-styled ‘vanguard’.

Pabloism’s  legacy continues. It is one of many influences inside  the French ‘alternatifs’, left social- republicanism, and the (left-wing of) the  Front de Gauche (Ensemble) and more widely in the European and Latin American left.

Although a small number of  ‘Pabloites’ re-joined the ‘Mandelite’ Fourth International (already moving away from Trotskyist  ‘orthodoxy) in the 1990s most evolved away from ‘Trotskyism’ towards broader forms of democratic socialism and New Left radicalism. Some even became part of the French Greens (at the time known as Les Verts), while most, as indicated, merged into the broader left.

As the political landscape has radically changed since the fall of Official Communism and the entrenchment of neo-liberal economists and social policies in most of the world those associated with this current have  been involved in a variety of left parties and campaigns. Pablo’s anti-colonialism hardly meets the challenges we face today. But the democratic strand of workers’ self-management remains perhaps, a strand which retains its relevance in the emerging ideas and policies of the left, including within the Labour Party..

Unlike ‘entryism’ and dogmatic Trotskyism….

 

(1)One of the best accounts of this and Krivine’s background is in Hervé Hamon, Patrick Rotman, Génération, les années de rêve, Paris, Seuil, 1987. For 68 itself: Patrick Rotman et Hervé Hamon, Génération, T.2 Les années de poudre, Paris, Le Seuil, 1988,

(2)The best biographical introduction to Michel Raptis: on the Lubitz Trotskyanet –  here

(3) A  reliable sketch of the French affiliate of the TMRI, the AMR, is  available here: Bref aperçu de l’histoire du courant “pabliste” ses suites et sespériphéries en France 1965-1996.  A journal from this tradition is Utopie Critique.

From KS.

 

16 Responses

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  1. Didn’t the Pabloites rejoin the USFI in the early 90’s?

    Matthew Thompson

    August 23, 2016 at 12:31 pm

  2. Est-ce que ces spécimens exotiques de existent encore comme des espèces protégées ou sont-ils, comme le Grand Orc, aujourd’hui disparu?

    Nick Wright

    August 23, 2016 at 12:32 pm

  3. “The ‘Pabloites’ evolved away from ‘Trotksyism’ towards broader forms of democratic socialism…” It’s defective verb time again:-

    I evolve
    You go soft
    He sells out…

    Francis

    August 23, 2016 at 12:37 pm

  4. Matthew, some of the older ones did.

    But Maurice Najman (the AMR’s best known figure) joined les Verts and my friends joined AREV, Alliance Rouge et Verte, which was the forerunner of Les alternatifs, which is now part of Ensemble.

    Yes, Nick, like the CPB….

    Andrew Coates

    August 23, 2016 at 12:42 pm

  5. Trotskyites and Trotskyism is a compelte failure, and anything touched by a trotskyist turns to shit, such as the Labour party.

    Trotskyists also push petit bourgeois perversion.

    Dean

    August 23, 2016 at 11:58 pm

  6. “Trotskyites and Trotskyism is a compelte failure” … unlike the success that is Stalinism, eh?

    Jim Denham

    August 24, 2016 at 12:05 am

  7. Jim Denham

    August 24, 2016 at 12:39 am

  8. There’s no such thing as ‘stalinism’. it is just an insult word for any successful revolution.
    a trotskyist is just a stalinist out of power.

    But who is Sean Matgamna really? Has he actually led any revolution and set up an actual state. Fidel and Che did, Lenin and Stalin did, Mao did. But Trotsky’s followers have not had any success. Its just a pipe dream, which is why you are infiltrating the Labour party. Sean M, Tony Cliff, Oxbridge Callinicos, Oxbridge Ali, etc are nobody’s politically.

    Stalin was nothing but a Leninist. there is no such thing as stalinism.
    you can educate yourself here:
    http://www.stalinsociety.org/2016/06/30/anti-stalin-mythbusting-memes/

    The British left will never progress until it gives up these petit bourgeois Trotskyite illusions.

    Dean

    August 24, 2016 at 1:01 am

  9. Hilarious, eh? Dean quotes the Stalin Society to prove “there’s no such thing as ‘stalinism’”!!

    Lenin, in his “last testimony” (January 4, 1923) stated:

    “Stalin is too rude and this defect, although quite tolerable in our midst and in dealing among us Communists, becomes intolerable in a Secretary-General. That is why I suggest that the comrades think about a way of removing Stalin from that post and appointing another man in his stead who in all other respects differs from Comrade Stalin in having only one advantage, namely, that of being more tolerant, more loyal, more polite and more considerate to the comrades, less capricious, etc. This circumstance may appear to be a negligible detail. But I think that from the standpoint of safeguards against a split and from the standpoint of what I wrote above about the relationship between Stalin and Trotsky it is not a [minor] detail, but it is a detail which can assume decisive importance.”

    Mind you, being “too rude” is, I suppose, small beer in comparison to what Stalin went on to become: the second biggest mass murderer of the twentieth century (and ally of the biggest).

    Jim Denham

    August 24, 2016 at 3:52 am

  10. Stalin was a Leninist. Trotsky was a Leninist. Lenin was certainly a Leninist. Viewed from outside the Bolshevik bubble, the similarities between their politics and assumptions seem much greater than the differences.

    Francis

    August 24, 2016 at 10:10 am

  11. The issue is what “Trotskyism” “Leninism” and “Stalinism” mean today, as they evolved and changed in the post war, and now, post-Official Communist states, conditions.

    The implicit argument here is that there are Trotskyisms and, for want of a better word, “post-Trotskyism”.

    The AWl says there are “two” main strands, the ‘orthodox” which is rooted in bureaucratic state centred Leninism, which is anti-democratic and wedded to such politics as the ‘anti-imperialism of fools”; the other drawing on the democratic strain of Marxism.

    I’m not sure if the divisions are so neat, nor that you’re entirely wrong Francis (since the famous quotations and texts are scholastic references for many on both sides) but it’s a better starting point from which to look at this history than going directly back to the ‘founding fathers’.

    Andrew Coates

    August 24, 2016 at 12:24 pm

  12. Trotskyites are nothing but parasites. they can never attract support under their own name and need to form these ‘fronts’ such as globalize resistant, the anti nazi league etc. The Trotskyites tried to burrow and spread throught the Communist movement, but were expelled everywhere. Vietnam, Cuba, everywhere Trotskyites are expelled. Why?

    The Trotskyites are parasitical on the workers movement, the Trade Union movement, the anti imperialist anti racist movement, in the Stop the War Coalition, run by Counterfire, and of course in the Labour Party. That is the modus operandi of the Trotskyites, who have been infiltrated right from the beginning of their history by the intelligence services.

    Some Trots, such as some members of the Socialist Workers Party, are even trained to talk in a ‘mockney’ dialect’, like that Martin Smith.

    The AWL are parasitic on the Labour party, they cannot stand on the basis of their own support, as they don’t have much outside Hackney.

    you should watch this carefully, by this incredible young black communist

    Corinne from Red Youth and the CPGB-ML talks at the Februray 2016 annual general meeting of the Stalin Society in London. She asks – who was Stalin? educate yourself deluded Trots:

    Dean

    August 24, 2016 at 7:21 pm

  13. I highly recommend that Francis (and everyone else!) read Lars T. Lih’s 2011 biography of Lenin, entitled simply “Lenin.” It will give you a better understanding of Lenin than anything from most Trotskyists or any Stalinist (or anarchist, or social democrat, or liberal, or conservative).

    Anything available from Lih online is also worth reading. See:

    https://johnriddell.wordpress.com/2013/04/16/lars-lih-online-nine-recent-studies-on-bolshevism-lenin-and-kautsky/

    jschulman

    August 24, 2016 at 8:09 pm

  14. Isn’t Lars T Lih one of these weakly worker types? ie a trot of some unorthodox kind. Weakly worker is the fake cpgb. they have no right to that name. parasitic trots.

    https://marxistleninist.wordpress.com/2009/12/24/against-trotskyism-a-reading-guide/

    Dean

    August 24, 2016 at 8:20 pm

  15. Forget the Fourth International, get with the Fourth position.

    http://4pt.su/

    Alexander Dugin is the greatest theorist of our time.

    Dean

    August 24, 2016 at 9:18 pm

  16. Agreed that Lih is very important.

    I have Lenin Rediscovered: “What is to be Done?” in Context.

    Anybody wishing to begin with his ideas I’d say that the much shorter book, Lenin, 2011, is a great place to start.

    I reviewed the latter here: A ‘Heroic Scenario’. Lenin. Lars T. Lih. Reaktion Books. 2011.

    https://tendancecoatesy.wordpress.com/2011/05/28/lenin-lars-t-lih-review-a-heroic-scenario/

    Andrew Coates

    August 25, 2016 at 4:47 pm


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